** ****Overview
**Students will create a variety of graphs using data, analyze the graphs and write a conclusion about their findings.

** ****Standards Addressed**

**Grade 6, Mathematics — Data Analysis and Probability**

*05-07 Benchmark
E. Collect, organize, display and interpret data for a specific purpose or need.*

Y2003.CMA.S05.G05-07.BE.L06.I02 / Data Collection

02. Select, create and use graphical representations that are appropriate for the type of data collected.

*05-07 Benchmark
D. Compare increasingly complex displays of data, such as multiple sets of data on the same graph.*

Y2003.CMA.S05.G05-07.BD.L06.I03 / Data Collection

03. Compare representations of the same data in different types of graphs, such as a bar graph and circle graph.

**Grade 7, Mathematics — Data Analysis and Probability**

*05-07 Benchmark
A. Read, create and use line graphs, histograms, circle graphs, box-and-whisker plots, stem-and-leaf plots and other representations when appropriate. *

Y2003.CMA.S05.G05-07.BA.L07.I01 / Data Collection

01. Read, create and interpret box-and-whisker plots, stem-and-leaf plots and other types of graphs, when appropriate.

**Grade 8, Mathematics — Data Analysis and Probability**

*08-10 Benchmark
A. Create, interpret and use graphical displays and statistical measures to describe data; e.g., box-and-whisker plots, histograms, scatterplots, measures of center and variability. *

Y2003.CMA.S05.G08-10.BA.L08.I01 / Data Collection

01. Use, create and interpret scatterplots and other types of graphs as appropriate.

**Grade 7, Science — Scientific Inquiry**

*06-08 Benchmark
A. Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools. *

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I01 / Doing Scientific Inquiry

01. Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however it is not always possible to control all variables.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I02 / Doing Scientific Inquiry 02. Identify simple independent and dependent variables.

Y2003.CSC.S05.G06-08.BA.L07.I03 / Doing Scientific Inquiry

03. Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations.

** ****Materials **

Graph paper

Computer (optional)

** ****Vocabulary**

**Heronries:** colonies of heron nests.

**Independent variable:** A variable whose value determines the value of other **variables**.

**Dependent variable:** What you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment.

** ****Procedure
Activity 1: Introduction **

Deer pictures are available at

- Divide the class into groups or pairs.
- Distribute the
**Too Many Deer?**student handout and have the students read it. - Distribute the
**Using Data to Answer Questions**handout and ask the students to discuss this handout in their group and write a statement explaining the graph. - Have one person from each group present their response. Discuss their findings.
- Ask the students if the graph helps to tell if there are too many deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park.

**Activity 2: Great Blue Heron**

Pictures of the great blue heron are available at **www.generationscvnp.org/photos.aspx**.

- Now that the students have used a prepared graph to answer a question, tell them that they will create their own graph to answer a question.
- Give the students 10 minutes of computer time to find out one or two facts about great blue heron. Record the facts they found.
- Distribute the
**Great Blue Heron**student handout. Have the students read the introduction. - Talk about the fact that several types of graphs can be created using this data. (Scatter plots or bar graphs will allow the
- student to answer the question.)
- Students can create the graph by hand or use Excel or Create a Graph (
**https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph**) as the teacher desires. - Their task is to answer the question: What is happening to the great blue heron population in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park?

**Answers**

- Independent variable is the year and will be on the x-axis.
- Dependent variable is the number of herons and will be on the y-axis.
- Bar graphs or scatter plots could be made.
- Graphs will vary.

**Activity 3: Park Visitors**

Pictures of the great blue heron are available at **www.generationscvnp.org/photos.aspx**.

- Ask students if they had ever been to any national park or specifically to the CVNP. Elicit their experiences.
- Distribute the student handout
**Park Visitors**. Read together the top of the page. - Talk about the fact that several types of graphs can be created using this data. (Scatter plots or bar graphs will allow the student to answer the question.)
- Students can create the graph by hand or use Excel or Create a Graph (
**https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph**) as the teacher desires. - Their task is to answer the questions: Has creation of the CVNP been a successful venture? Has there been consistent use of the park? What is the trend for visitors to the park?

**Answers for Number of Visitor Data**

Sample graph for attendance data.

There was a steady increase from 1978 to 1992. The next years from 1992 to 1994 showed a marked jump. The years after that (until the present) show some ups and downs, but indicate a downward trend until 2008, where there was a big increase.

** ****Evaluation**

Rubric for Graphs

CATEGORY |
4 |
3 |
2 |
1 |

Title |
Title is creative and clearly relates to the problem being graphed (includes dependent and independent variable). It is printed at the top of the graph. | Title clearly relates to the problem being graphed (includes dependent and independent variable) and is printed at the top of the graph. | A title is present at the top of the graph. | A title is not present. |

Labeling of X-axis |
The x-axis has a clear, neat label that describes the units used for the independent variable (e.g, days, months, participants’ names). | The x-axis has a clear label that describes the units used for the independent variable. | The x-axis has a label. | The x-axis is not labeled. |

Labeling of Y-axis |
The y-axis has a clear, neat label that describes the units and the dependent variable (e.g., percent of dog food eaten; degree of satisfaction). | The y-axis has a clear label that describes the units and the dependent variable (e.g., percent of dog food eaten; degree of satisfaction). | The y-axis has a label. | The y-axis is not labeled. |

Accuracy of Plot |
All points are plotted correctly and are easy to see. A ruler is used to neatly connect the points or make the bars, if not using a computerized graphing program. | All points are plotted correctly and are easy to see. | All points are plotted correctly. | Points are not plotted correctly or extra points were included. |

Units |
All units are described (in a key or with labels) and are appropriately sized for the data set. | Most units are described (in a key or with labels) and are appropriately sized for the data set. | All units are described (in a key or with labels) but are not appropriately sized for the data set. | Units are neither described nor appropriately sized for the data set. |

Neatness and Attractiveness |
Exceptionally well designed, neat and attractive. Colors that go well together are used to make the graph more readable. A ruler and graph paper (or graphing computer program) are used. | Neat and relatively attractive. A ruler and graph paper (or graphing computer program) are used to make the graph more readable. | Lines are neatly drawn but the graph appears quite plain. | Appears messy and thrown together in a hurry. Lines are visibly crooked. |

Concepts |
Student has a clear understanding of plots and has answered the question effectively. | Student has satisfactory understanding of the major concepts, but has small misunderstandings. | Student has major misunderstandings of the concepts and cannot complete work on his own. | Student does not display understanding of the major concepts or did not complete the assignment. |

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